My Little Boerboel

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Living With Your Boerboel – The First 6 Months

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So… you ignored the advice from all those good folks who told you to get a goldfish or a Pomeranian or a Jack Russell. You wanted a Boerboel… so OK… you did all the right things; you found a good breeder, you met the mum and dad, you saw a bunch of pups, you settled on one and you shelled out the £1,750 – £2,000 required to become a member of this rather small club.

Well done you!

You are now the proud owner of one of the most wonderful dogs in the world but now you have to take him home and live with him and the only thing between your 4kg bundle of licks and waggyness and an unruly, disobedient, destructive, house eating, life destroying, aggressive 200lb nightmare is YOU.

So what are you going to do about it?

This article, like all the others on this blog is based solely on my personal experiences bringing up my new Boerboel puppy, bought to replace my partner’s German Shepherd disability assistance dog who died several months ago. It is in no way meant to be some kind of “Boerboel Owner’s Manual”. On every article I write covering this topic I always ask people to do their own research, you should go out and meet Boerboels, Boerboel owners, Boerboel breeders. Read about the breed, pick up the phone and talk to people who know about the breed, most of us are very friendly people who will gladly answer any and all questions put to us if we can and put you in touch with people who can if we cant. If you cant be bothered to do even this small amount of work prior to buying a Boerboel, or any large dog for that matter, then please DO NOT get a Boerboel. They aren’t for you.

Equipment

Before you get your Boerboel puppy home, or at least within the first few months of getting him home, you will, most likely, need most if not all of the following;

  • Puppy Pads
  • Poo Bags
  • Dog Blankets
  • Feeding and Water Bowls
  • Puppy Food or Raw Food if you have taken my advice and decided to feed a BARF diet
  • INSURANCE, Micro-chip, vaccinations, Boerboel owners paperwork
  • X Pen
  • Dog Crate (big enough for an adult Boerboel, you can reduce it’s internal size with large boxes if necessary)
  • Fan for the dog crate. (Dogs, especially small puppies feel the heat and humidity just the same as we do. If you are hot, think how much hotter you would be wearing a fur coat – now get the damn fan. Look you just spent the best part of two grand on a dog and you’re bitching about a fan?)
  • Soft Dog Mattress
  • Dog Toys (small, medium and large versions)
  • Large Storage Boxes – for toys (dont leave toys lying around, they are YOUR toys not your puppy’s), supplements, treats etc
  • 50′ line
  • Stake (for the 50′ line)
  • Collar and ID tag (bear in mind you are likely to go through 3 or 4 collars in the first 6 months)
  • 4′ lead
  • 6′ lead
  • Harness
  • Brushes
  • Nail Clipper and File
  • Worming Treatment (it is almost 100% guaranteed your puppy will arrive with worms. They are passed on from mum to pup in the milk. Talk to your vet.)
  • Ear Mite Treatment (talk to your vet)
  • Ear Cleaning materials (cotton wool balls and 100% virgin olive oil will be fine – the highest quality you can find)
  • Spot – On or Advocate
  • Puppy Shampoo
  • Training Treats
  • Treat Pouch
  • Chewing Items (high density rubber bones, antler, knuckle or other recreational bones etc – NO COOKED BONES EVER!)
  • Supplements (probiotics, apple cider vinegar, goat’s milk (never use cow milk), vitamins (constituted for dogs), kelp powder etc)

Your Puppy

The best thing to do when you get your puppy home is to place him in his x-pen in a quiet room with some pee pads, a bowl of goat’s milk, his blankets and a small selection of his toys and leave him for a couple of hours to sleep, get used to his new environment and all of the strange sights, sounds, smells and comings and goings of his new home. As weird as it will be for you, the first couple of days for your puppy are a minefield of excitement and stress.

Just remember, a couple of days earlier, your pup was a member of an active bundle of tumbling teeth and claws and fighting, nibbling, yelping, licking, snoring, sleeping, cuddling litter mates. Now, he is, at least until you form your pack, an orphan. His mum has gone, his dad has gone, all his brothers and sisters have gone, in fact everything in the world that he knew, was comfortable with and felt safe in has gone forever. Now all he has is you and what you will provide for him. He will rely on you for his warmth, his food, his water, his comfort, his enjoyment, his excitement, his place in life, his place in society and most importantly, his safety.

You will be his teacher, his mentor, his friend, his playmate, his protector and his guide for the rest of his life. You will be a cross between Moses and Yoda and if you do your job properly your Boerboel will give you 12 years of friendship, laughter, unswerving loyalty and will protect you, your family and everything you hold dear with his life.

Is it worth it?

I spend at least 4 hours every day interacting with my new puppy, bear in mind he is sleeping about 16-18 hours a day and the rest of the time he is either bonding with my partner, my other dogs or just goofing off, learning how to interact with the family on our terms and not his. Riley has between 6 and 8, 5-6 minute sessions of “formal” training every day and many other short sessions of informal training woven into his play sessions. He is a major time sink, all puppies are but if you want to successfully bond with your dog you too will need to give of yourself to him. This early investment will pay serious dividends later on in life.

He is naughty, he is feisty, he is independent, he is infuriating, he is stubborn, he digs in the garden, he nips, when he doesn’t want to do something he just flops down and lies there but when he screws up I know it’s because he is just a baby, a child and it’s because I haven’t done MY job properly, he is my mirror and I have failed him not the other way round and I owe him better. So when, in the quiet parts of the day, I watch them just being dogs in all their massive magnificence, a perfect blend of power and grace, I feel absolutely honoured to share my life with such incredible animals. And of course, it’s worth it. Every single second.

The Early Days

One of the most important things to remember when you own a Boerboel or any Mastiff for that matter is not to expect too much too soon. We take the approach that our puppies never have formal obedience training or any kind of special training (protection, schutzhund, agility etc.) until they are around 8 months of age. We believe that they develop best, as dogs and as members of our pack and family, if they are allowed to have a decent, stress free puppy-hood. That means just letting them be puppies.

Teaching Begins

Of course we teach them the basics and this starts the day we get them home but the basics are really just the rules of the house and to do little things like sit, down, come and not to jump up at the bars of the x pen and when we approach his pen or crate he doesn’t jump around and act like an idiot. This behaviour is ignored, the behaviour we want is rewarded, it is a simple but very effective method to use with a young puppy, especially as we do not believe in using physical corrections (to be covered at length in a later post) until they are 8 – 12 months of age by which time, if I have done my job properly the need for physical corrections will be few and far between. In the early developmental phase of a young puppy’s life we only use voice corrections and deprivation.

Voice corrections are simple enough but we add a small twist – whispering. In most of our normal every day dealings with our puppy we use a soft, low, calm voice, almost at a whisper. This has two effects. The first is that the puppy has to concentrate on the low tone and initially will only be rewarded for responding to a “whispered” command, the whisper then is the normal level of communication in the first few months. Secondly, when “whisper” is normal on the odd occasion when a raised and more forceful command becomes necessary the contrast between that and the normal level of communication is very marked and makes the harder vocal correction much more effective.

Deprivation is simply a case of depriving your puppy of that thing he wants most in the world, usually that means attention from you. Boerboels are people dogs on steroids. They need their humans like fish need water and the most important thing in a Boerboel’s life is the quality and quantity of his interactions with his humans. This is important to keep in mind as it is a vital training tool.

In its simplest form if you approach your puppy in his pen and he jumps around, jumps at the bars or generally acts stupid give him a firm “No!” and turn your back, wait until the noise dies down or count slowly to 10 and then turn and give your puppy your full attention. Rinse and repeat until your puppy learns that being an idiot gets him nothing, being calm does. The other side of the coin obviously therefore, is when you approach your puppy’s pen and he is calm or gives you good confident eye contact give a firm “YES!” (we use marker training and always mark good behaviour with a “YES!” More on this later), accompanied by a treat. The reason we use this method is twofold; we recognise how human oriented Boerboels are but also just how sensitive Mastiffs are. By turning your back, turning to stone, looking at the sky or the floor and becoming totally impassive you give your puppy no attention whatsoever. Boerboels and Mastiffs in general crave human attention whether that attention is positive OR negative and you do not want your Boerboel to start craving negative attention.

There will, of course, be times when you simply aren’t in the mood to deal with your pup. He has nipped you one too many times, played too rough (again), grabbed your trousers or got under your feet or done one of the million and one other things that get under your skin. DO NOT yell, shout, or lose your temper. Calmly remove yourself from the situation or put your puppy in his crate (that is what it is there for after all) and walk away. Make a coffee, have a cigarette, take a deep breath and allow the situation to calm down and settle. Remember, if your puppy misbehaves it is because he is a baby, he doesn’t know any better and he doesn’t know any better because YOU haven’t taught him any better.

When your puppy first arrives in his new home, he will have had 8 or 9 weeks of rough and tumble inside his pack of litter-mates. If you have little experience of dogs and you are unaware of the way puppies play, how they fight, how they compete with each other for dominance within their group then please take some time to familiarise yourself with this. Head to you-tube, there are plenty of vids there of puppies playing, fighting, chasing and running in a normal healthy way. You need to familiarise yourself with what is normal. It is vital you understand the world of rough and tumble he has just come from so when he paws at you and catches you with a claw, or nips you (and he will – LOTS!) or bites at your clothes you are aware of where it comes from and why it happens.

Perversely all of these bad behaviours are things that you want to happen, and as early in your Boerboel’s life as possible. It is MUCH easier and far less painful to teach a Boerboel to have a soft mouth at 2 months than at 6 months. Boerboels have a bite strength of about 650lbs per square inch, a PitBull has a bite of 235lbs per square inch, believe me, you do not want to be bitten by an adult (or even an adolescent) Boerboel even in play. I have been and I have 2, 3″ scars on my right wrist and nerve damage in my upper right forearm all because I was lazy, over confident, made mistakes, took my dog for granted and I didn’t do my job properly. I deserved everything I got and I hope if I ever do the same thing in future I get bitten again just to remind me what stupid feels like.

In the early days then bad behaviour is in fact a blessing. Your pup has just come from a world where rough play, nips and bites and scratches and wrestling are all part of the every day routine. He now lives in a world where razor sharp puppy teeth and soft pink human flesh do not mix well. He needs you to show him the new rules of his new pack. If your pup doesn’t nip you how can you teach him not to nip or how to moderate his bite strength? This of course is a challenge, you will need to excite your pup to the extent that he nips or mouths (which inevitably means a certain amount of pain) whilst remaining calm enough to teach correct behaviour. There are hundreds of different books written on this as well as thousands of articles on the internet so I wont go into all of the different techniques related to stopping biting or creating a soft mouth here except to say we found blowing raspberries in the face of our little one to be an effective way of stopping such undesirable behaviour. Of course, this method may be totally useless for your dog, your dog could react quite badly to it as well so start off gently, which is why you should look at a range of techniques and see what works for you.

Another very effective technique for dealing with excitable puppies is called capping. Capping is a technique used to bring a dog out of drive thereby “capping” it’s excitement or enthusiasm for a particular task, redirecting that drive to an obedience command and then bringing the dog back up into drive again. For example; my puppy loves rag tugs, his very favourite toy is an old pillow-case tied to a rope. I will start by getting him nice and excited, well up in drive, then I will take possession of the tug and then give him a fast, strong command to “SIT!” or “DOWN!” As soon as his butt touches the ground or the down is complete he gets an enthusiastic “YES!” and he is given the tug as a reward (instead of a food treat) and energetic play continues as before – again Rinse and Repeat until all the enthusiasm he is putting into playing with the rag (or other toy) is put into the sit or down before introducing any distractions. “Capping” is one of the techniques I refer to when I talk about “informal training”.

The practical applications of capping are, for example, if you take your dog to a new place or he is confronted with a unique situation that he hasn’t been previously socialised to, like his first walk in a deer park or meeting cows or a strange cat running away from him his initial reaction may be to get all excited and either chase or otherwise muck about in an inappropriate or possibly dangerous way. A dog who has had “capping” as an integral part of its training is much better equipped to deal with strange or unique situations, is used to having his excitement checked and is much more likely to respond in a calm and obedient way when confronted by environmental stressors.

Assuming you take your puppy at 8 weeks of age, this gives you a window of 2 weeks before you can have his second set of vaccinations done, after which you have another 2 weeks before his first fear period window begins to close (I will discuss fear periods and other developmental phases at a later date), some dogs (mostly giant breeds) are late or slow developers which could give you an extra week here but do not count on it. Take it as Gospel that from the time you have his second set of jabs done you have two weeks to take him to as many different places, expose him to as many different people, experiences and things as you possibly can. This can mean an awful lot of work but it doesn’t have to. Ask the neighbours to help. Invite a different friend or neighbour in every day, get them to bring their kids, introduce your puppy to children, skateboards, bicycles, horses, cows, sheep, shopping centres, other dogs, cats, mobility scooters and anything else you feel your puppy may come across in his life that may cause him stress. Write a list and tick each item off when he has encountered it and remained calm. It is your responsibility as your pup’s pack leader and protector to ensure that all encounters your pup has are supervised, controlled and proceed in as calm and stress free a way as possible.

Teething

After being play-nipped about 100 times you may find the idea of teething a welcome one BUT this is where his mouth full of little razor sharp needles gets replaced by a mouth full of bigger ones. Again, there are plenty of resources on the net or in books which will tell you about teething. I will just tell you what has worked for us.

Back in the late 80s when I owned a pitbull I don’t recall doing anything special, this may well have been because they have a very high tolerance to pain or just because he had an easy time of things. Our German Shepherd had a bad time but we found things like frozen carrots and frozen, quartered apples were great as were tea towels, quartered and soaked in water then rolled into cigar shapes and placed in the freezer. If you dont have a dog who is determined to pick every thread and tear them to shreds as they thaw, these are particularly effective. Another thing that worked for us was making chicken or beef stock ice cubes. It’s a bit fiddly because you need to make your own beef or chicken stock from bones and veggies, I really wouldnt recommend using those cube things, and you need to make sure you dont use onions or other vegetables your dog may have a reaction to but the end result, poured into ice cube bags and frozen is a great mouth cooler your dog will love and has good nutritional value.

Strangely enough we found this little thing very handy for our puppy. We were VERY sceptical at first, mainly due to its size and apparent flimsiness but we were pleasantly surprised and bought two so one could be in the freezer while the other was in use. I would also suggest getting an antler to help him cope with his need to chew and any rubber ball with knobbly bits on so he can work his front teeth.

Illness

Get a good vet. Make sure your vet is comfortable with giant breed dogs, not all are and very few are up to speed on BARF diets. If you can, shop around. We are very lucky, our vet is South African who not only knows giant breeds but Boerboels specifically. Another vet at the practice owns a boisterous pack of German Shepherds. It is important that you have a good relationship with your vet because your puppy WILL get sick. Your pup will likely arrive with worms and should be wormed once a month but of course you will need to talk this over with a vet. Your pup will also likely arrive with ear mites, again talk to your vet. Also you need to be aware that weaning, leaving the litter, and moving into a new home are all stressful for your pup, these things can have a cumulative effect and can contribute to suppressing your pup’s immune system and resistances to all sorts of things like coughs and colds and tummy upsets and skin issues like mites (mange), yeast infections, seasonal flank alopecia, dermatitis and so on.

The most important thing of course is not to panic. Keep a couple of tins of pumpkin in your cupboard for puppies with bad tummies, also diced chicken (poached in chicken stock) and rice is good for pups with diarrhoea of which there are two types, the kind that is like thick custard or pure water. If your pup is passing dirty brown water, phone the vet, make an appointment and go. If your pup has thicker but still loose poop then stop his normal food, make sure he has lots of water to drink, give him a few tablespoons of pumpkin and monitor him. Water is very important as is food made with lots of water like broth or stock, this is because puppies can dehydrate VERY quickly. Talk to the vet.

From time to time your puppy will limp in one or more legs or exhibit some occasional limb stiffness. Generally this isn’t necessarily something to be too concerned about. You have a giant breed, they will grow fast and they will put on a great deal of weight quickly. Mine is piling on 1.92kilos every week so growing pains and some stiffness should be expected. That said, you can take measures to guard against it. Feed your dog a BARF or high quality “human grade” kibble, situate his sleeping area away from draughts and buy a decent mattress for him to sleep on. In all such cases though it is always a good idea to phone your vet.

Exercise

Boerboels are generally a very healthy breed. However, like most large and giant breeds they can suffer from hip and elbow dysplasia. Most of the Boerboel breeder associations have very strict criteria regarding which dogs and bitches may enter the stud registers. This has done a great deal to eliminate many conditions prevalent in other breeds, unfortunately they cannot eliminate handler error. Over exercising your puppy or subjecting your pup to periods of high impact exercise like running, chasing and catching frisbees before he is 12 months is a no no and may damage joints and connective tissues leading to major issues later on in life. This does not mean they shouldn’t be exercised simply that caution and common sense should prevail.

Riley is now 6 months old, he gets 5 minutes walk per month, so a 30 minute walk every day. Because he is a very slow and ponderous walker who likes to explore everything and investigate everywhere we give him a 30 minute walk twice a day. This obviously isn’t enough for most puppies and isn’t enough for ours. We supplement these walks with free and supervised/engagement play in the back garden where we basically let him tire himself out and short formal training sessions which exercise his mind. Be aware that it is perfectly normal for a dog, any dog, pretty much every dog to have a “funny five minutes”. This usually happens in the late evening or just before he settles down. It is a way that some dogs get rid of excess energy. Our adult male ran around in the garden like a lunatic until he crashed and our little Riley barks at the living room carpet for a couple of minutes until he gets it out of his system and settles. It’s no big deal.

After your Boerboel has been in your life for a few weeks you will have an idea as to his energy levels and the kinds of games he likes to play but also when putting together a training/exercise schedule remember that your puppy is expending a MASSIVE amount of energy just growing. Riley was 4.2 kg when we got him, he is now just over 40 kilos. He has put on an average of 1.92kg a week, every week, this is tiring for your dog and can also be painful. Our pup has low energy levels and likes wrestling games (a lot and he is VERY strong) and tug, as a result he is relatively easy to tire out and a tired puppy is a happy puppy. Our German Shepherd however, was extremely active, had a massive engine and a very high prey drive and would chase a ball 24/7. Tiring him out whilst maintaining a sensible level of stress on his joints was difficult and often led to frustration. That said, I would rather find strategies for dealing with frustration than have to deal with a dysplasic dog.

And So

We have had our new puppy for four months, he is officially six months old tomorrow (3rd September 2012) and in general it has been one of the most pleasant, trouble free four months I have had with any puppy and I have had dogs in my life for the best part of 40 years. Sure, he had a period of about 3 weeks or so when he got stroppy and had a biting phase which was painful. All pups push the boundaries. They are simply testing the rules and finding their place in your pack. If you are a firm, fair and above all else a consistent pack leader these things will pass with minimal difficulty. In rare cases some dogs are naturally dominant, these make great breeding stock because a dominant dog is usually a very confident dog and you want to have confident pups of course, however, most dogs are only opportunistically dominant and there has been a massive amount of over-hyped nonsense written on this subject which has, I have absolutely no doubt, scared dog owners and scarred dogs who have been wrongly corrected (and therefore over corrected) for behaviour their owners wrongly read as being “dominance”.

Believe me your pup does not lie awake at night planning to annexe the spare bedroom or enslave the cats, he just wants to know where he stands. Life is simple for your puppy if YOU are the pack leader and all he has to worry about is where to snooze and which toy to play with next. With his needs taken care of (pack, food, warmth, shelter, safety etc) your dog will be very happy to simply allow you to be the pack leader, all you need to do is lead and the two most important things for this are fairness and consistency. For our puppies we have a very simple daily schedule and rule-set (deliberately so) which we apply rigidly.

All in all he has been a pleasure, he has had a few sick days, it took us a while to suss out his likes and dislikes though we are still looking for all of the right buttons to push, he has had a skin infection and teething was a pain but we have been incredibly lucky that our puppy comes from a brilliant breeder and from awesome bloodlines. We have socialised him, he is great with cats, dogs, kids of all ages, horses, sheep, goats, cows and he absolutely adores adult humans of all ages. Strange noises, sights and sounds seem to be no bother either. One of the first things we did with him was take him in the car to where they are building a small housing estate and introduced him to the noise and smell and vibrations of large machinery and pneumatic drills and big trucks and all the hustle you would expect. Yesterday he was asleep on our patio when a jet fighter screeched low and fast over our property, he opened his eyes for a few seconds and then went back to sleep as if nothing had happened.

Riley’s temperament is fast approaching bombproof status but he is also approaching puberty and his second fear period which affects males much more than females. We are not out of the woods yet and the next six months will be every bit as important to his development as the last six have been. I am looking forward to every single second and every single challenge because I know my friend Riley will be there supporting me when it gets tough, teaching me when I screw up and loving me unconditionally just because. That’s the kind of guy he is.

136 Responses

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  1. How long can the pup stay without the vaccine

    Anonymous

    February 24, 2021 at 7:52 pm

    • I would suggest you talk to your vet about that. There is a certain time between the first vaccination that the breeder would (should) have organised and the booster they need after that.
      Speak to your vet and do it now.

      Christina

      February 24, 2021 at 8:25 pm

  2. How is Riley doing now?. Thanks for the article, I read to end. Any ways, I just got a boerboel puppy. She is 2 months, 1 week, 4days. But I fear she might get the Pavlov virus because my old dog died of it. What can I do to prevent that from happening

    Hope Ehiarimwian

    March 5, 2021 at 12:21 am

    • Do you mean Parvo virus? I have never never heard of Pavlov virus before.
      Against Parvo, make sure your dog has its vaccinations.
      Thank you for asking about Riley, he is doing very well even though getting a bit slower in his old age.

      Christina

      March 6, 2021 at 9:12 am

  3. I appreciate all your knowledge. I’m interested in getting a new family member and I feel like this breed is a perfect fit. I grew with a German shepherd and I had a 160 lb Rottweiler chow whom was like a son to me. Thank you

    Robert

    June 18, 2021 at 5:23 am

    • Thank you Robert, I’m sure you will not be disappointed.

      Christina

      June 18, 2021 at 1:12 pm

  4. We got our very good boy Archer in March of 2019. When he was about 11 mos old he could not walk all of a sudden. We got him to the emergency vet and had to have MRI done. The results were not pleasant. He ended up being diagnosed with Wobbler’s disease and a “spinal arachnid diverticulita”. We then got him an appointment at a very prestigious university that has an excellent veterinary program. After several hours we discussed his prognosis. The diverticulita was one of, if not the largest cysts they’d seen as it extended from his mid back to his lower hips inside his vertebrae. This would swell and compress his spinal column and cause the inability to walk. Typically this is something that may extend over 1 or 2 vertebrae, and a known repair that could be addressed. If you don’t get it removed completely, it can grow back. Unfortunately l, the wobblers disease Ells so caused issues with his front legs as well. They felt that while they could go into to do the operations, it would cost $10-15,000 but had zero guarantee of having a positive outcome. Additionally he would have to spend months in rehab. The surgery is so invasive we just didn’t see how he would be any better. We kept him on meds and let him live his most comfortable life and said we would not let him be in great amounts of pain. He was such a loving boy….a big sweetie of 171 pounds. He ended up passing in April at the age of 2-1/2. The entire family was devastated…I’m tearing up now just thinking about him. My primary reason of posting this is that you never know what can happen….but in the end we loved him and he knew it. Our breeder has honored his contract with us and is providing us with a new puppy…different bloodlines and we will have a new good boy soon. We are going to pick up pet insurance this time just in case. Learning lesson for us.

    Boerboel Lover

    June 18, 2021 at 4:07 pm

    • Hi Boerboel Lover,
      I took the liberty on editing that little typo you had there, instead of people reading it and then not seeing your correction on a different comment. I hope that was ok with you.

      Im so sorry to hear your story and you are absolutely correct – you just never know.
      I am sure he had a wonderful life with you and that is what matters. That they are loved no matter how long they are with us.
      I wish you and your family the best and more happy days with your new addition when he arrives.
      C x

      Christina

      June 21, 2021 at 7:46 pm

      • Thank you. I appreciate it.

        Boerboel Lover

        June 28, 2021 at 3:30 pm

  5. Thanks.
    How can I train my dog ?.

    Rose

    August 2, 2021 at 8:51 pm

    • With patience, rewarding the correct behaviour and ignoring the bad. Being consistent with your commands and what you expect. But most importantly, NEVER lose your temper and NEVER use physical coercion.
      Puppies are like babies, you do not expect a young child to solve highly complex mathematical problems at the age of 5. Be realistic, do not overwhelm you puppy with multiple commands and expect them to learn them in a day. It takes minimum of 30 repetitions just to partially learn one command. Repetition is the key but keep it interesting, best way to teach commands is when playing and doing other rewarding activities. Have fun with your puppy and train it with their speed not yours.
      There are multitude of resources available online on how to train a dog, but remember an adult dog is different to a young puppy.
      Engaging with a professional is always a good idea if unsure on how to proceed.

      Christina

      August 3, 2021 at 4:16 pm


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